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The ammonia vapor passes through a turbine which turns a generator making electricity. The subsequent projects, itemshave been a direct consequence of this earlier SBIR work.

A development Road Map was created that is now being implemented.

Ocean Energy Research Center

Makai Ocean Engineering is the designer and contractor for this facility, and will conduct performance and corrosion online dating bio generator of several heat exchanger designs being built by several different firms. These results suggest that suitably designed large OTEC plants will cause online dating bio generator significant increase in biological growth.

In addition to serving Ocean thermal energy conversion OTEC power plants, these heat exchanger units can be used in a variety of applications, including: This pipe is unprecedented in the offshore industry and Lockheed Martin has developed a method of fabricating this fiberglass pipe while on a floating OTEC platform at sea.

OTEC produces electricity continuously, 24 hours a day throughout the entire year. OTEC is not competing for other vital resources such as food and fresh water. This model will be important to developers and regulators as commercial OTEC develops. The figure to the right shows the facility under construction in mid-Octoberportions of these systems are visible.

Even within the US, this island market is very large; globally it is many times larger. With an increasingly electrified population and concerns about energy efficiency and carbon footprint increasing worldwide, industrial and military users are looking for ways to make more efficient use of their thermal energy online dating bio generator.

The operating conditions of OTEC heat exchangers are unique, and an optimal design has yet to be developed. OTEC is dispatchable, meaning that its power can be ramped up and down quickly in a matter of seconds to compensate for fluctuating power demand or supply from intermittent renewables.

The study was performed by Makai Ocean Engineering under a cost-shared grant and can be downloaded here. That study developed a detailed evaluation of short term floating OTEC plants providing electricity to shore and a long term OTEC industry manufacturing an energy carrier for the continental US.

We have significant programs in heat exchanger design and testing, plume modeling, power module design, plant layout, cold water pipe handling and deployment, a pilot plant design, analyzing the power cable to shore, and bioplume modeling.

Recently, higher electricity costs, increased concerns for global warming, and a political commitment to energy security have made initial OTEC commercialization economically attractive in tropical island communities where a high percentage of electricity production is oil based.

Land resources are not needed other than for on-shore landing. OTEC plants pump large quantities of deep cold seawater and surface seawater to run a power cycle and produce electricity.

A major engineering challenge, however, is how to safely lower this large, flexible and delicate pipeline down into the ocean as it is fabricated section by section on the deck of the platform.

In an offshore floating OTEC plant, deep, cold seawater is drawn through a vertical fiberglass pipeline from a depth of meters feet. The test facility allows Makai to measure the performance of evaporators and condensers, as a function of water velocity, temperature difference, and ammonia flow rate.

Why does the U. Makai uses a unique OTEC plant analysis software to design heat exchangers which accounts for lifespan, performance heat transfer and pumping efficienciesand cost fabrication and effect on platformto enable true optimization.

The tropical ocean at a typical OTEC site has two distinct layers: Major concerns considered in the design include crushing the pipe and dropping the pipe.

Intermittent renewable energy sources are not baseload and often require storage of their energy during peak production hours for later consumption.

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion OTEC is a process that can produce electricity by using the temperature difference between deep cold ocean water and warm tropical surface waters. The Grippers lower the pipeline by a handover sequence where the Grippers transfer the weight back and forth; only one Gripper must be squeezed on the pipe at all times.

Unlike other renewable energies, the maximum available energy from OTEC is not limited by land, shorelines, water, environmental impact, human impact, etc.

The two Grippers are identical in structure except that the bottom Gripper moves up and down using hydraulic cylinders and the top Gripper is fixed to the platform.

Since that time, Makai has been a sub- or prime contractor for dozens of unique research and development contracts in OTEC.The Ocean Energy Research Center (OERC) in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA is a unique and critical research facility dedicated to demonstrating and improving technology to harness the .

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